Wednesday, August 26, 2020

White Privilege in Politics Essay Example for Free

White Privilege in Politics Essay What is White Privilege one may inquire? White Privilege is the ideological supposition and conviction situated in political works on setting white individuals and networks in position of benefit monetarily, strategically, socially and instructively. In the book Race, Class, and Gender in the United States, composed by Paula S. Rothenberg, it centers around the time that white benefit came about strategically. Donald G. Pastry specialist, in his book Politics of Race, discusses the limitations against the Blacks. Keeping an eye on Marable, in his book Beyond Black White, he centers around chose Black authorities throughout the years. With the assistance from these three books the peruser will have the option to see the gigantic measure of white benefit in policy centered issues throughout the years to the present, where there are as yet a deficient measure of African-Americans in legislative issues. Rothenberg presents white benefit when it is first of a political style. It was first utilized in a political manner when White hirelings were given their opportunity toward the finish of their agreement, however the Black workers were most certainly not. Whites yet not Africans must be given their opportunity levy toward the finish of their arrangement (p. 33). Whites were given more rights at that point Blacks. They reserved the option to remain battle ready and the privilege of self-preservation. White workers could claim domesticated animals, while the Black hirelings proved unable. The White workers were additionally given the simpler activities. Blacks were not permitted to have their own family, while Whites reserved the privilege to control their spouses. White men were given the option to control their ladies without tip top obstruction; Blacks as slaves were denied the option to family at all since family would imply that slave spouses, not proprietors, controlled wives (p. 33). The entirety of the African ladies were viewed as workers, while the White ladies were simply viewed as the guardian of mens homes. It was illicit to whip bare White men, however an individual may perpetrate as much torment as they need onto a Black man. Along these lines, an individual can perceive how white benefit in legislative issues was first utilized, and that Blacks had essentially no rights. Bread cook centers around when the dark slaves were given their opportunity. They were free, however there were laws and limitations essentially expressing that they werent a resident. As the quantity of free blacks developed, there were more limitations set for them. Numerous urban areas didnt need to have anything to do with the free blacks and some prohibited blacks from entering their urban areas: Many provinces during the eighteenth century found a way to forestall the manumission of slaves, to constrain out any free blacks who may be in living arrangement, and to ban some other free blacks from entering (p. 54). Dough puncher expresses that a few blacks were dynamic in legislative issues, however none could cast a ballot: Blacks were politically dynamic, yet limitations were typically positioned on their democratic benefits (p. 54). Additionally blacks werent ready to affirm against whites: Blacks, including free blacks, were commonly banned from affirming against whites (p.54). In this way, blacks werent given any rights in those days and werent seen as equivalents. Marable first brings up that thirty years prior there were scarcely one hundred dark authorities and just five African-Americans served in Congress. Additionally he expresses that the quantity of dark civic chairmen of U. S. towns and urban communities was zero. the quantity of chose dark authorities across the country was scarcely one hundred; the quantity of African-Americans in Congress was five; and the quantity of blacks filling in as chairmen of US urban communities and towns of all sizes was zero (p.205). Marable at that point says that today there is more than forty African-Americans serving in the U. S. Congress and over another 8,000 have government positions. Today, forty African-Americans sit in the US Congress; in excess of forty African-Americans are city hall leaders; and more than 8,000 blacks have been chosen for government positions (p. 205). Despite the fact that there has been a significant increment of dark portrayal, African-American authorities, chose and designated, just make up 2 percent all through the country. Indeed, even in territories with a high populace of African-Americans, there are not many or no chosen dark authorities. In many areas with considerable dark voting demographics, there are not many or no African-American chosen authorities (p. 205). Blacks are underrepresented inside the constituent structure of intensity and dynamic in the U. S. Marable at that point expresses that a large number of the African-American chosen authorities have what he calls obligation without power. His model is that a large number of the dark civic chairmen have little control or authority over neighborhood administrative organizations. This can prompt a decrease in voter enlistment and political investment rates. Along these lines, throughout the years the quantities of dark authorities has risen, yet at the same time isnt excessively high. Taking everything into account, white benefit in governmental issues has made some amazing progress, through long periods of servitude and the African-Americans attempting to pick up their opportunity to become rises to with the Whites. There is as yet white benefit in legislative issues right up 'til the present time and the Blacks are gradually making there approach to getting progressively engaged with the U. S. Congress and the administration. Individuals need to comprehend this is a various nation of numerous ethnic foundations and societies, and that one day white benefit in legislative issues will be abrogated and an African-American will be President. Works Cited Baker, Donald G. Legislative issues of Race. Lexington, Mass. : Lexington Books. 1975. Marable, Manning. Past Black and White. New York, NY: Verso. 1995. Rothenberg, Paula S. Race, Class, and Gender in the United States. sixth version. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, 2001.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Geology Of The Area. Sources Of Natural Materials and Construction Essay

Geography Of The Area. Wellsprings Of Natural Materials and Construction Problems - Essay Example It is made out of quartz or feldspar since they are the most widely recognized minerals in the earth covering. The shades of sandstone have been related to a few locales in light of the fact that their beds frequently structure profoundly noticeable bluffs. It generally permits water and different liquids to permeate; moreover sandstone is permeable enough to store huge amounts of liquids, consequently, are important springs and supplies of oil. It discovers application in house products and residential development. Basically, they can be pieces of previous stone or mono-mineralic gems. These stones are extremely solid particularly when full grown in this way appropriate for development purposes. Mudstone-as per the guide it is elbow-formed and consistently disseminated in the guide. This is a fine grained sedimentary stone. Its unique constituents were dirts or mud their individual size must be related to the assistance of a magnifying lens. It has no layers because of unique surfac e or interruption of layering by tunneling life forms preceding lithification. It might show split or gaps relying upon how it is shaped. As per Dunham (1962), the order of limestone, a mudstone is a carbonate rock with under 10% allochens in carbonate mud network. Mudstone is a delicate stone material accordingly isn't proper for development purposes. ... It is the hardest stone layer among the three showing up in the guide and is utilized for development purposes, a total for base of streets, mineral filler passing 0.075mm †0.425mm of mineral size. It tends to be utilized in the production of glass, toothpaste and concrete. Potential PROBLEMS THAT MAY ARISE DURING CONSTRUCTION coming up next are the potential issues that may emerge during the thruway development process between focuses An and B. As expressed by Amelin et al. (2002), ‘It is essential to consider that on the off chance that we decide to disregard the encompassing geography in the development of designed works, at that point the encompassing topography will unquestionably affirm its impact on our built structures.’ First the material cut might be not exactly the necessary fill. Cut and fill, is a procedure of developing a railroad, street trench or high way whereby the complete material extricated pretty much is equivalent to the amount of material for fill. Since the cut is not as much as fill, it would warrant gaining materials from different hotspots for instance acquire territories, bringing in from different regions. The material cut might be more than the necessary fill any overabundance cut over the fill would warrant an extra transportation cost. Furthermore, there might be portability issues because of the tough and steep geography of the land which may not support human and machine development during the thruway development. This triggers utilization of unique apparatus in cutting, filling and compaction procedures to accomplish the ideal target or shape. The land’s scene might be too rough with the end goal that it might cause more cost particularly when it as to get the materials from different regions. There is trouble in slicing because of geology of land, steadiness of slants and since any

Sunday, August 16, 2020

I Will Upload The Case Studies Example

I Will Upload The Case Studies Example I Will Upload The Case Studies â€" Essay Example > Health and Social carePhysical careChronic diarrhea or frequent runny or watery bowel movement results from gastrointestinal infections (GI) caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites and these varies with regions and hygienic status of the residents; those that last for more than three days are sign of medical condition. There is need for Mr. Dale to seek the attention of medical professionals immediately (Hanauer Marteau, 2001, p. 67-79). It is important for the patient to drink a lot of water to prevent dehydration due to excess water that he has lost or for good health whether as a first aid or treatment. After a through laboratory assessment, the patient was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis which is a complication of an inflammatory bowel disease or a disease of the intestine which bearing the characteristics of open sores or ulcers in the colon (Dodi Spencer, 2006 p. 156-164). Apart from adhering to the medication prescribed by the doctor, the patient needs to consider a go od diet or healthy lifestyle which consists plenty of fresh vegetables, fiber and lots of water or other health fluids helps the system of Mr. Dale to digest more easily and absorption of more nutrients to replace the ones lost. Moderate exercise should be considered for example, a little walk with the help of Physiotherapist may boost the digestive system and prevent the development of thromboembolic complications like venous thrombosis but if it is not possible the patients should have a bed rest to conserve the little enough remaining in the body (Walker-Smith, Hamilton Walker, 2001 p. 245-251). Mostly chronic diarrhea is treated with the injection against viruses like rotavirus and enter-viruses, and other microorganisms like bacteria which causes gastrointestinal infections. However, the complication of ulcerative colitis mostly combines the medicinal administration and surgery. At minor stages, the medications are administered to induce remissions, maintenance of remission, minimize the side effects of the treatment, improvement of the quality of life of the infected by reducing the severity of the accompanying complications and minimize the risks of complications of chronic illnesses like cancer (Doherty, 2010 p. 135-137). The preferred medications include: 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA and mesalazine) and immunomodulators to reduce intestinal inflammation. There are no medicines to completely ill the Ulcerative colitis so when the symptoms get to the severe stages a surgery is conducted to remove the infected large intestines (colectomy) (Warner Barto, 2009 p. 87-89). The problem at hand is loss of nutrients and fluid through vomiting and diarrhea or anorexia. For nursing care, Total Parental Nutrition should be considered to directly injecting nutritional formulas which contains necessary nutrients like glucose amino acids, salts, vitamins and lipids without going through the ordinary eating and digestive processes. Intravenous therapy is conside red in case the symptoms of the disorder are complicated that the patient is not able to get food through other routes. If total parental nutrition or total nutrient admixture is considered the health professionals should be keen to observe the flow of fluid which is used to give in nutrients in the body as well as checking the changes in the body weight. The nurses should be keen to monitor the pattern of intake and output of the fluid as well and the changes in eth weight of the patient. In case of severe symptoms or much pain medicines like morphine should be administered to relief the pain (Farraye, 2010 p. 156-167).

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Critical Issues Of School Counseling Essay - 1576 Words

Critical Issues in School Counseling: Drugs in Schools Drugs within schools have been and continue to be a prevalent problem in our school systems; it is a problem that affects all ethnicities and social economic statuses, making this a significant issue. Although, it is a problem in all ethnicities some are at higher risks than others and low social economic status increases these chances as well as ethnic identity. Marsiglia et al. (2001), â€Å"Those identifying more strongly with their group’s way of acting, speaking, and dressing tended to have been offered more types of drugs and to have begun drug use at earlier ages.† School counselors are faced with this ongoing dilemma that can give rise to other problems within the school system such as violence, pregnancy, and even death due to overdose. In order for a school system to function adequately the students must have a strong support and resource base. This is where the dedication and advocacy of school counselors comes into place, they are that base. Often times, it is easier said than done, some resources may be scarce making the jobs of counselors challenging. A school counselor must be aware of the situations, community, and populations within their school and create ways to combat or maintain the situation from becoming an epidemic that could permanently affect the students’ lives. While this is a difficult and a continuous job, there has been several ways in which school counselors continue to spread awareness andShow MoreRelatedGroup Counseling824 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction Group counseling can be appealing, but it involves solving a problem common in the group. The goals should be listed to ensure that the counselors achieve their goals, proper research and evaluation should be done before choosing a group. Observation is also critical because it helps the counselor aware of the group process. Group process is a sub- conscious process that takes place within a group as a whole; it involves personal and interpersonal process. Groups involve integrationRead MoreToward Intentional Interviewing and Counseling1652 Words   |  7 PagesInterviewing and Counseling INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS THE â€Å"CORRECT† RESPONSE TO OFFER A CLIENT? * There are many potentially useful responses in any interviewing situation. * Reflecting the client’s emotions can be helpful. * Selecting one aspect to focus on can be useful, and then later you can examine other dimensions by asking an open question. * Our tasks: * Respect the client * Use appropriate skills and strategies * Seek to alleviate stress INTERVIEWING, COUNSELING, AND PSYCHOTHERAPYRead MoreStruggling with grief and loss can lead to a number of serious physical and emotional ailments. In700 Words   |  3 Pageslater generations can bring insight. Unresolved issues often follow the parent-child relationship into adulthood. The true balance of the parent-child relationship shifts several times. Children gain maturity and create their own families and then, in the normal course of life, care for their parents as they grow older and need assistance. Sometimes, death robs adult children of the final stage of the parent-child relationship. Sometimes, issues remain unresolved after a parent has died. BeingRead MoreEssay on Counseling Ethics804 Words   |  4 PagesWhen a help-seeker experiences a warm and loving Christian relationship within the body of Christ, spiritual and emotional growth ensues. A counsellor then, who works in Gods vineyard, or in a church school or even a Para-church organization/charity therefore opens the gate for many new possibilities for ministry, both within the body of Christ and to the unsaved population through the body of Christ. Without mincing words; one can say: Before a counselor, therapist, or pastoral counselor, canRead MoreSpecial Populations High School Counseling1681 Words   |  7 PagesRunning Head: SPECIAL POPULATIONS Special Populations: High School Counseling Kean University CED5963 Adolescence is a period of dramatic and revolutionary change. In western cultures it is the time of life, either most reviled, depicted as posing the greatest threat to the established order of things, or most celebrated and romanticized, in particular within the sphere of popular culture, for its creative and challengingRead MorePurpose Of Needs Assessment Of School Counseling Programs1713 Words   |  7 PagesPurpose of Needs Assessments School counselors use data to, â€Å"identify school counseling program goals; monitor student progress to close the achievement gap; assess and evaluate programs; demonstrate school counseling program effectiveness (Young, 2013).† The purpose of assessments are to identify and plan school counseling programs that align with the mission of schools. School counselors assist students individually to help with academic, personal/social or career concerns. One helps studentRead MoreEthical Ethics And Ethical Issues1311 Words   |  6 PagesThis book provides readers with an in-depth analysis of ethical theories, legal and ethical issues which gives them an opportunity to practice real life ethical issues that are frequently complex and thought provoking. Readers are further implored to examine their personal, moral and ethical value systems and codes they work from in an attempt to assist them in developing an informed ethical conscience for making sound moral and ethical jud gments. The author presents ethical dilemmas throughout theRead MoreThe Theoretical Frameworks Governing The Field Of Counseling Psychology934 Words   |  4 Pagestheoretical frameworks governing the field of Counseling Psychology are theories emerging from several schools of thought including Psychoanalytic, Adlerian, Existential, Person-centered, Gestalt, Behavior, Cognitive behavior, Reality and Family systems. I will discuss and supplement the aforementioned therapy derived from theoretical foundations in the succeeding sections with the assistance of a class handout issued by Dr. Didi Firman for the course Counseling Theory and Practice and with excepts fromRead MoreDiscrimination Model of Supervision1386 Words   |  6 Pages School counseling is a complex and demanding component of the counseling profession. With an increase of social and emotional stressors, children and youth of today face numerous challenges. These challenges ultimately affect children in school. With an increase of suicides, drug abuse, gang involvement, and violence amongst youth, a high demand for school counseling supervision is needed (Henderson, 1994). Parents and teachers often turn to school counselors for guidanceRead MoreTest Anxiety And Performance That Indicate A Relationship Between Anxiety, Preparation And Test Performance927 Words   |  4 Pagesis not identified as a disorder. However, it is identified as a sub category of social phobia in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). According to Bogel et. al, when considering a diagnosis you must assess the core issue surrounding the test anxiety, for example, if there is a social humiliation component or relation to general negative outcomes or if there is a relation to obsessive behavior such as anxiety revealed through obsessively over preparing. It was advised

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Brothers Grimm Brought German Folklore to the World

Almost every child knows fairy tales like Cinderella, Snow White, or Sleeping Beauty  and not just because  of the watered-down Disney movie versions. Those fairy tales are  part of Germanys cultural heritage, most of them originating in Germany and recorded  by two brothers, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. Jacob and Wilhelm  specialized in publishing  the folklore, myths, and fairytales they  had collected over many years. Although most of their stories take place in a more or less medieval world, they were collected and published by the Brothers Grimm in the 19th century, and have long retained their grip on the imagination of  children and adults all over the world. Early Life of the Grimm Brothers Jacob, born in 1785, and Wilhelm, born in 1786, were sons of a  jurist, Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, and lived in Hanau in Hesse. Like many families at the time, this was a large family, with seven siblings, three of whom died in infancy.   In 1795, Philipp Wilhelm Grimm  died of pneumonia. Without him, the familys income and social status declined rapidly. Jacob and Wilhelm could no longer live with their siblings and their mother, but thanks to their aunt, they  were sent to Kassel for a higher education.   However, because of their social status, they were not treated fairly  by the other students, an unfortunate situation that continued even at  the university they attended in Marburg.  Because of those circumstances, the two brothers became very close to one another and deeply absorbed in their studies. Their law professor awakened their interest in history and especially in German folklore. In the years following their graduation, the brothers had a hard time taking care of their mother and siblings. Simultaneously, both started to collect German sayings, fairy tales, and myths. In order to collect those well-known and widely spread fairy tales and sayings, the brothers Grimm talked to many people in many places and transcribed the many stories they had learned over the years. Sometimes they even translated the stories from Old German into modern German and adapted them slightly. German Folklore as Collective National Identity The Grimm brothers were not only interested in history, but in uniting a disparate Germany into one country. At this time, Germany was more of  a conglomeration of about 200 different kingdoms and principalities. With their collection of German folklore, Jacob and Wilhelm tried to give the German people something like a collective national identity.   In 1812, the first volume of Kinder-  und Hausmà ¤rchen was finally  published.  It  contained many of the classic fairytales still known today like Hà ¤nsel and Gretel and Cinderella.  In  subsequent years, many other volumes of the well-known book were published, all of them with revised content. In this process of revision, the fairytales became more and more suitable for children, similar to the versions we know today.   Earlier versions of the tales were rather crude and filthy in content and form, containing explicit sexual content or harsh violence. Most of the stories originated in rural areas and had  been shared by farmers and among lower classes. The Grimms revisions made these written versions suitable for a more refined audience. Adding illustrations made the books more appealing to children. Other Well-Known Grimm Works Besides the well-known Kinder-und Hausmà ¤rchen, the Grimms continued to publish other books about German mythology, sayings, and language.  With their book Die Deutsche Grammatik (The German Grammar), they were the first two authors who researched the origin and development of the German dialects and their grammatical circumstances. Also, they worked on their most lavish project, the first German dictionary. This Das Deutsche Wà ¶rterbuch was published in the 19th century but was really completed in the year 1961. It is still the largest and most comprehensive dictionary of the German language. While  living in Gà ¶ttingen, at that time part of the Kingdom of Hannover, and fighting for a united Germany, the Grimm brothers published several polemics criticizing the king. They were dismissed from the university along with five other professors and also kicked out of the kingdom. First, both lived again in Kassel but were invited to Berlin by the Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, in order to continue their academic work there. They lived there for 20 years. Wilhelm died in 1859, his brother Jacob in 1863. To  this  day, the Grimm brothers literary contributions are known all over the world and  their work is tightly bound to the German cultural heritage.  Until the European currency, the Euro, was introduced in 2002, their visages could be seen on the 1.000 Deutsche Mark bill.   The themes of Mà ¤rchen are universal and enduring: good versus evil in which the good (Cinderella, Snow White) are rewarded and the wicked (stepmother) are punished. Our modern versions—Pretty Woman, Black Swan, Edward Scissorhands, Snow White and the Huntsman, and others show just how relevant and powerful these tales remain today.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Controversial Essay High School Students and Beginners’ Guide Free Essays

To order an article, please click this link www. thepensters. com/gimatria. We will write a custom essay sample on Controversial Essay: High School Students and Beginners’ Guide or any similar topic only for you Order Now Thank you. Most controversial essays are emotionally-packed, hot issues that are intensifying and debatable in nature, thus, sparking conflicts. They contain disputable topics of recurring interests. Simply put, any essay contents where strong contentions are typically presented for long periods build up into particular forms of controversy. Hence, they are generally considered highly polemical pieces of essay. The reason for this is that people have varied ideas and opinions regarding topics that are contentious, debatable or disputable. Controversial essays polarize people to raise powerful arguments in favor of or against any issues. This results from concepts or ideas that have distinct viewpoints, which comprise any specific contexts. Most people are good in writing this type of essay mainly because they follow these basic ideas underlying any controversial essay topics, as follows: First, you will not find any comprehensive guidelines of composing controversial essay topics, but only opinionated views. Subjective topics and observations in crafting articles generally generate controversies but primarily entirely relative. They ensure first if a particular article is a personal essay, opinion piece, news report, persuasive article or thingamajig. Anyway, you should usually come up with timely content articles in furnishing details for this type of essay. Second, identify your subject theme and be familiar with the argument. Remain centered on the theme. Have understanding of your subject matter by doing some research to write impartial content. Just take into account to keep yourself unbiased, except if it is your opinion or own piece. Needless to say, if you would like to write a contentious topic, pick one out that will appropriately elicit your own understanding about the given issue. Even so, be ready to be disputed and/or corrected. Third, be sensitive to your readers. Keep this in mind when writing: Know whom you are addressing or target audience. Keep the readers’ interest and concentrate on the end results. Ask yourself some of these questions: What is your objective as an essayist? Is your essay a controversial article, news items, or persuasive in nature? Provide only correct factual observations even when you are trying to be creative explaining some theories. Readers can be offended or even annoyed with a contentious topic; yet, this does not constitute injurious expressions or offensive practice in the slightest form. Remember, as a writer, you’ve the right to contradict or denounce unfair remarks. As such, obnoxious content should never be tolerated. On the other hand, your readers can consider forgoing your piece, talk about it, or disregard it altogether. That could be their decision. Nevertheless, no writer should be abused. Excessive prejudicial opinions and hateful bashing need to be dealt with judiciously. Injurious activities are unacceptable and no readers or author owns a right to damage or harm another person. In summary, if you choose to create controversial essay topics, yours may result in serious debates requiring supporting evidences. Really, you need profoundly, sensitive understanding of proper argumentation to deal mainly with opinionated essays, which are simply and entirely subjective any way you view them. Eilvu Gimatria Essay Guide To order an article, please click this link www. thepensters. com/gimatria. Thank you. How to cite Controversial Essay: High School Students and Beginners’ Guide, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

Data Mining In A Nut Shell Essay Example For Students

Data Mining In A Nut Shell Essay In today’s business world, information about the customer is a necessity for a businesses trying to maximize its profits. A new, and important, tool in gaining this knowledge is Data Mining. Data Mining is a set of automated procedures used to find previously unknown patterns and relationships in data. These patterns and relationships, once extracted, can be used to make valid predictions about the behavior of the customer. Data Mining is generally used for four main tasks: (1) to improve the process of making new customers and retaining customers; (2) to reduce fraud; (3) to identify internal wastefulness and deal with that wastefulness in operations, and (4) to chart unexplored areas of the internet (Cavoukian). The fulfillment of these tasks can be enhanced if appropriate data has been collected and if that data is stored in a data warehouse. According to Stanford University, A Data Warehouse is a repository of integrated information, available for queries and analysis. Data and information are extracted from heterogeneous sources as they are generated.This makes it much easier and more efficient to run queries over data that originally came from different sources. When data about an organization’s practices is easier to access, it becomes more economical to mine. â€Å"Without the pool of validated and scrubbed data that a data warehouse provides, the data mining process requires considerabl e additional effort to pre-process the data† (SAS Institute). There are several different types of models and algorithms used to â€Å"mine† the data. These include, but are not limited to, neural networks, decision trees, rule induction, boosting, and genetic algorithms. Neural networks are physical cellular systems which can acquire, store, and utilize experiential knowledge (Zurada). Neural networks offer a way to efficiently model large and complex problems. Decision trees are diagrams used for making decisions in business or computer programming. Branches are used to represent choices with associated risks, costs, results, or probabilities. Rule induction is a way of deriving a set of rules to classify cases (Two Crows). These set of rules differ from those in a decision tree in that they are independent from one another. Boosting is a technique in which multiple random samples of data are taken and a classification model for each set of data is made (Two Crows). The genetic algorithm is a model of machine learning, whose behavior is based on the processes of evolution in nature. Populations of data are resented by chromosomes and then go through a process of evolution. The members of one set of data compete to pass on their most favorable charac teristics to the next generation of data. This process continues until the best data is found. Many of the models and algorithms used in data mining are simplifications of the linear regression model. Data Mining is largely, if not entirely used for business purposes. The highest users of data mining include banking, financial, and telecommunications industries (Two Crows). A survey taken by Two Crows Corporation turned up these applications of data mining:Ad revenue forecasting Churn (turnover) management Claims processing Credit risk analysis Cross-marketing Customer profiling Customer retention Electronic commerce Exception reports Food-service menu analysis Fraud detection Government policy setting Hiring profiles Market basket analysis Medical management Member enrollment New product development Pharmaceutical research Process control Quality control Shelf management/store management Student recruiting and retention Targeted marketing Warranty analysis Data mining will have a different effect on different industries in the business world. In the telecommunications industry, for example, in order to retain or build market share and expand or develop new products and services, service providers will have to make the necessary adaptations and changes that the industry and pace setting technology requires. â€Å"The most successful telecommunications companies will, of course, be the ones who can develop and market products and services that customers will buy,† says Julian Kulkarni, SAS institute Europe’s Product Marketing Coordinator for telecommunications. â€Å"But high customer churn rates in telcom markets show that you cannot depend on customer loyalty. To thrive, companies must know their customers, their products, their own operations, and the competition better.†The key to succeeding in this rapidly changing industry is to understand the customer, or the market that the customer represents. Through data mining, telecommunications companies can know what their customers have done in the past and what they will do in the future. With this information, the companies will be in ideal positions to make business decisions based on the information they have gained from the data mining process. .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e , .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .postImageUrl , .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e , .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e:hover , .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e:visited , .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e:active { border:0!important; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e:active , .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u51677c34aaf93a9b8943843eb11d992e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Macbeth - supernatural and spirits EssayOther real world examples of data mining include:Targeting a set of consumers who are most likely to respond to a direct mail campaignPredicting the probability of default for consumer loan applicationsPredicting audience share for television programsPredicting the probability that a cancer patient will respond to radiation therapyPredicting the probability that an offshore oil well is actually going to produce oilThere are many computer applications on the market to assist businesses in the data mining process. The applicability of these programs can accommodate the various uses of data mining. Software titles include AC2, ALICE dIs oft, AutoClass C, C5.0 (See5), Clementine, Data Surveyor, DataDetective, DataEngine, Datasage, DataScope, DataX(tm), DbBridge, dbProbe, dbProphet, Explora, IBM Visualization Data Explorer, INLEN, IRIS, IXL ; IDIS software, LEVEL5 Quest, MineSet (SGI), ModelQuest MarketMiner, Nuggets(TM), Partek, PolyAnalyst, PV-WAVE, SE-Learn, Sipina-W v2.0 ; Sipina-Pro, Snob, SPSS Data Mining Software, The Data Mining Suite, Thinkbases Data Mining Product, TiMBL (Tilburg Memory Based Learner), Tooldiag, WINROSA, WinViz, WizWhy, XmdvTool, and XpertRule. Summary Table (Pryke):Company Product Major Function URLIsoft ALICEd’Isoft Alice is a powerful and easy to use Data Mining Tool. Use decision trees to explore exploit your data. Textual reports, SQL queries generation, What-If Analysis, etc. Clementine Clementine is the leading data mining toolkit, twice winning the UK Governments (Department of Trade ; Industry) SMART award for innovation. Clementine applications include customer segmentation/profiling for marketing companies, fraud detection, credit scoring, load forecasting for utility companies, and profit prediction for retailers. Distilleries Data Surveyor Data Surveyor is a data mining tool for expert users. It consists of a suite of powerful algorithms and provides support for all steps in the knowledge discovery process. Data Surveyor allows the user to interactively discover knowledge, inspect results during discovery and guide the discovery process. Data S urveyor applications include database marketing, credit scoring and risk analysis. DataEngine DataEngine is a software product for data analysis using fuzzy technologies, neural networks, and conventional statistics. It has been successfully applied in the fields of forecasting, data base marketing, quality control, process analysis, and diagnosis.The special features of the new version are on the one hand the high flexibility concerning the integration into existing solutions, which is supported by a flexible ASCII import and the import of MS-Excel files. On the other hand it is possible to include any kind of user defined functions into DataEngine.In addition to this, DataEngine 2.0 becomes the tool for professional data analysis thanks to the 32 bit architecture and the productive graphic component for data visualization., Inc. Datasage Datasage provides a suite of C++ modules which maintain data inside an existing relational d atabase where it can be managed more effectively, (the company calls this data centricism). Datasage then uses high-speed C++ routines to read and batch process the data. As a result, the product can handle very large databases. Datasage includes a suite of data transforms, modeling and analysis tools, including neural networks and factor analysis., Inc. dbProphet Utilizing sophisticated neural network technologies, Trajecta offers a broad range of software and services that provide highly accurate predictions of complex customer behavior and market trends. Trajectas non-technical, easy-to-use software can also help optimize business activities, allowing its users to exceed their business goals. Table (Pryke):Company Product Major Function URLSGI MineSet (SGI) Combining powerful integrated, interactive tools for data access and transformation, data mining, and visual data mining, MineSet provides you with a revolutiona ry paradigm for getting maximum value from your vast data resources. MineSet enables you to gain a deeper, intuitive understanding of your data, by helping you to discover hidden patterns, important trends and new knowledge. It is this deep understanding which can be used for developing powerful business strategies leading to greater competitive advantage. Mining Technologies Inc. Nuggetsâ„ ¢ Nuggets uses proprietary search algorithms called SiftAgents(TM) to develop English if then rules. These algorithms use genetic methods and learning techniques to intelligently search for valid hypotheses that become rules. In the act of searching, the algorithms learn about the training data as they proceed. The result is a very fast and efficient search strategy that does not preclude any potential rule from being found. The new and proprietary aspects include the way in which hypotheses are created and the searching methods. The user sets the crit eria for valid rules. Nuggets also provides a suite of tools to use the rules for prediction of new data, under-standing, classifying and segmenting data. The user can also query the rules or the data to perform special studies. Inc. Partek Software for data mining and knowledge discovery based on statistical methods, data visualization, neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. WINROSA WINROSA is a software tool which generates automatically Fuzzy If-Then Rules from your data. The generated data set can be run by most of the existing fuzzy tools like e.g. DataEngine, fuzzyTECH, and Matlab. Software XpertRule Data Mining using high performance parallel SQL technologyA Windows PC client being able to intelligently query the data source on the host server can achieve knowledge Induction. The speed of the process is therefore dependant upon the server not the speed of the client PC. This a llows data mining to exploit the speed offered by MPP servers (Massive Parallel Processors) and database architectures that are optimized for serving queries. CitedCavoukian, Ann, Ph.D. â€Å"Data Mining: Staking a Claim on Your Privacy.† Jan. 1998Pryke, Andy. â€Å"The Data Mine.† 23 Sep. 1998SAS Institute Inc. â€Å"Data Mining.† 12 Jan. 2000Two Crows Co. â€Å"Introduction to Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.† 1999Zurada, J.M. (1992), Introduction To Artificial Neural Systems, Boston: PWS Publishing Company, p. xv:Computers Essays